|Haloquadratum walsbyi||Sitta europaea caesia||Boletus calopus||♂Aphyocharax anisitsi|
|♀Brachypelma smithi||Hippopotamus amphibius||Euphorbia leuconeura||Sarcophaga sp. with Tipulidae|
1626–1697. Standard IPNI form: Redi
Francesco Redi was an Italian entomologist, parasitologist and toxicologist, sometimes referred to as the "founder of experimental biology" and the "father of modern parasitology". Having a doctoral degree and in both medicine and philosophy from the University of Pisa at the age of 21, he worked in various cities of Italy.
Redi is best known for his series of experiments, published in 1668 as Esperienze Intorno alla Generazione degli Insetti ("Experiments on the Generation of Insects"), which is regarded as his masterpiece and a milestone in the history of modern science. The book is one of the first steps in refuting "spontaneous generation", a theory also known as "Aristotelian abiogenesis". At the time, prevailing theory was that maggots arose spontaneously from rotting meat, which Redi was able to disprove. In an experiment, He used samples of rotting meat that were either fully exposed to the air, partially exposed to the air, or not exposed to air at all. Redi showed that both fully and partially exposed rotting meat developed fly maggots, whereas rotting meat that was not exposed to air did not develop maggots. This discovery completely changed the way people viewed the decomposition of organisms and prompted further investigations into insect life cycles and into entomology in general. It is also an early example of forensic entomology.
In Esperienze Intorno alla Generazione degli Insetti Redi was the first to describe ectoparasites, such as lice (Phthiraptera), fleas (Siphonaptera), and some mites (Acari). His next treatise in 1684, titled Osservazioni intorno agli animali viventi che si trovano negli animali viventi ("Observations on Living Animals, that are in Living Animals") recorded the descriptions and the illustrations of more than 100 parasites. In it he also differentiates the earthworm (generally regarded as a helminth) and Ascaris lumbricoides, the human roundworm. An important innovation from the book is his experiments in chemotherapy in which he employed what is now called "scientific control", the basis of experimental design in modern biological research. Perhaps, his most significant observation was that parasites produce eggs and develop from them, which contradicted the prevailing opinion that they are produced spontaneously. Altogether he is known to have described some 180 species of parasites.See also: Distinguished authors of previous months.
Species of the month
Some facts on this antelope:
Head and body length: Between 108-146 cm.
Shoulder hight: Between 57-79 cm.
Weight: Males, about 41 kg.; females about 28 kg.
Range States: Kazakhstan, Mongolia, Russia, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan.
Habitat: Open dry steppe grassland and semi-desert areas.
Surviving number: Estimated at 100,000-110,000.
Lifespan: 6 to 10 years.
Diet: Grasses, steppe lichens, herbs and shrubs.
Conservation status: Critically Endangered (IUCN 3.1).
First described: By the Swedish naturalist Linnaeus in 1766.
If you think your nose is too big, take a look at Saiga tatarica. This antelope's over-sized snout hangs over the mouth and is built to filter dust and warm the frigid air in the winter. The Saiga is a nomad which roamed the steppes for millennia, living in large herds when conditions permitted. The mating season starts in November, when stags fight for the possession of females. The winner leads a herd of five to 50 females. In springtime, the mothers give birth to one or two foals. High birthrate allowed it to bounce back after brutal winters, yet recently poaching for meat and horns intensified, decimating the population by as much as 90%. In particular risk is the Mongolian subspecies Saiga tatarica mongolica with an estimated population of just 750.
See also: Species of previous months