|Haloquadratum walsbyi||Sitta europaea caesia||Caloboletus calopus||♂Aphyocharax anisitsi|
|♀Brachypelma smithi||Hippopotamus amphibius||Euphorbia leuconeura||Sarcophaga sp. with Tipulidae|
1769–1832. Standard IPNI form: Cuvier
Georges Léopold Chrétien Frédéric Dagobert Cuvier (most often published simply as "Georges Cuvier") was a French naturalist and zoologist. He is sometimes referred to as the founding father of paleontology. Cuvier was a major figure in natural sciences research in the early 19th century and was instrumental in establishing the fields of comparative anatomy and paleontology through his work in comparing living animals with fossils. Cuvier's work is considered the foundation of vertebrate paleontology, and he expanded Linnaean taxonomy by grouping classes into phyla and incorporating both fossils and living species into the classification. Cuvier is also known for establishing extinction as a fact: at the time, extinction was considered by many of Cuvier's contemporaries to be merely controversial speculation.
He is also remembered for strongly opposing theories of evolution, which at the time (before Darwin's theory) were mainly proposed by Jean-Baptiste Lamarck and Étienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire. Cuvier believed there was no evidence for evolution, but rather evidence for cyclical creations and destructions of life forms by global extinction events such as deluges (outburst flooding).
Cuvier wrote hundreds of scientific papers and books. His most famous work is Le Règne Animal (1816–1817, four tomes; English title The Animal Kingdom). It sets out to describe the natural structure of the whole of the animal kingdom based on comparative anatomy, and its natural history. Cuvier divided the animals into four embranchements ("Branches", roughly corresponding to phyla), namely vertebrates, molluscs, articulated animals (arthropods and annelids), and zoophytes (cnidaria and other phyla).
He is the author of thousands of new taxa, among them well over 5,000 species of fish and molluscs. In 1800 and working only from a drawing, Cuvier was the first to correctly identify in print, a fossil found in Bavaria as a small flying reptile, which he named the Ptero-Dactyle in 1809 (later Latinized as Pterodactylus antiquus).
When the French Academy was preparing its first dictionary, it defined "crab" as "A small red fish which walks backwards." This definition was sent with a number of others to the naturalist Cuvier for his approval. The scientist wrote back: "Your definition, gentlemen, would be perfect, only for three exceptions. The crab is not a fish, it is not red, and it does not walk backwards." In 1819, he was created a peer for life in honour of his scientific contributions and is thereafter known as Baron Cuvier.See also: Distinguished authors of previous months.
Species of the month
Common Death Adder
Some facts on this snake:
Length: 70-100 cm.
Longevity: 9 years (in captivity).
Habitat: Forests, woodlands, grasslands and heaths.
Range: Eastern and coastal southern Australia.
Diet: Small mammals, lizards and birds.
Bite speed: 13 hundredths of a second.
Conservation status: Least Concern (IUCN 3.1).
Be careful not to step accidentally on a camouflaged Acanthophis antarcticus. This is one of the most venomous snakes known in the world: a bite can cause paralysis and may lead to death within 6 hours, due to respiratory failure. The Death Adder is characterized by a broad and somewhat flattened, triangular head, short stout body and a thin rat-like body ending in a curved spine. It has the habit of burying itself in sand or leaf litter, with just the head and tail exposed whilst it lies in wait for prey. On approach of a potential prey, it mimics the movements of a worm or caterpillar with the tip of the tail in a process called caudal luring. The end of the wiggling tail is easily mistaken for food by a hungry and unsuspecting victim which is instantly captivated. When the prey is within range, the snake strikes at great speed. Female death adders are viviparous; they produce large litters of live babies which number between 10 and 32 in late summer. The genus Acanthophis or "death adders" contains 7 australian species, and belongs to the family Elapidae or "Elapid snakes".
See also: Species of previous months