Superregnum: Eukaryota
Supergroup: Stramenopiles



Stramenopiles Patterson, 1989

Alternative classifications


Patterson (1989)


Patterson, D.J. (1989). Stramenopiles: chromophytes from a protistan perspective. In: The chromophyte algae: problems and perspectives, J.C. Green, B.S.C. Leadbeater and W.L. Diver (eds), Clarendon Press, Oxford, UK, pp. 357-379, [1].


  • core chromophytes
  • "protozoan taxa that may be related to the core chromophytes"
    • slopalinids (opalinids and proteromonads)
    • bicosoecids
    • actinomonads (Pedinellales and actinophryid heliozoa)
    • labyrinthulids, thraustochytrids, Diplophrys, and Sorodiplophrys
    • ?Spiromonas, Perkinsus and the Apicomplexa ["there is no longer any good case for regarding the Apicomplexa as being related to stramenopiles"]
    • ?foraminifera (Boderia)
    • ?oomycetes

Leipe et al. (1994), Patterson (1994)


Leipe, D. D, P. O. Wainright, J. H. Gunderson, D. Porter, D. J. Patterson, F. Valois, S. Himmerich, and M. L. Sogin. 1994. The stramenopiles from a molecular perspective: small subunit rDNA sequences from Labyrinthuloides minuta and Cafeteria roenbergensis. Phycologia 33:369–377.

Also published in: Patterson, D.J. (1994). Protozoa: evolution and systematics. Pages 1–14 in K. Hausmann and N. Hülsmann, eds. Progress in protozoology. Proceedings of the Ninth International Congress of Protozoology. Fischer, Stuttgart, [2].

Stramenopiles sedis mutabilis

Patterson (1999)


From The Diversity of Eukaryotes, (PDF)

In Eukaryotes
Clade Stramenopiles

Patterson in Lee et al. (2000)


Patterson, D.J., 2000. Residual Heterotrophic Stramenopiles. In: Lee, J.J., Leedale, G.F. & Bradbury, P. An Illustrated Guide to the Protozoa. Society of Protozoologists/Allen Press: Lawrence, Kansas, U.S.A, 2nd ed., vol. 2, p. 751-754, [3]. See Brands, S.J. (1989-2015), [4].

In “protozoa”, “stramenopiles

Reviers (2002)


From Biologie et phylogénie des algues, [5]

Eukaryota [see Algae]

  • Ochrophyta (= Ochrista, Heterokontophyta, Stramenochromes)

Adl et al. (2005)


From The new higher level classification of eukaryotes with emphasis on the taxonomy of protists, [6]

Adl et al. (2012)


Adl, S.M. et al. (2012). The revised classification of eukaryotes. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 59 (5): 429–514, (PDF)


[Notes: M, monotypic group with only one described species; P, paraphyletic group; R, ribogroup assembled from phylogenetic studies.]

Ruggiero et al. (2015)


Ruggiero, M.A., Gordon, D.P., Orrell, T.M., Bailly, N., Bourgoin, T., Brusca, R.C., Cavalier-Smith, T., Guiry, M. D. & Kirk, P. M. (2015). A Higher Level Classification of All Living Organisms. PLoS ONE 10(4): e0119248, [7].