Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Chromista
Subregnum: Harosa
Infraregnum: Rhizaria
Phylum: Cercozoa
Subphyla: Endomyxa – Filosa

Ordo (incertae sedis): Gymnosphaerida

Genera (incertae sedis): Allas – Feuerbornia – Proleptomonas – Wagnerella – Zoelucasa


Cercozoa Cavalier-Smith, 1998


  • Adl, S.M. et al. 2005: The new higher level classification of eukaryotes with emphasis on the taxonomy of protists. Journal of eukaryotic microbiology, 52: 399–451. DOI: 10.1111/j.1550-7408.2005.00053.x PDF
  • Adl, S. M., Simpson, A. G. B., Lane, C. E., Lukeš, J., Bass, D., Bowser, S. S., Brown, M. W., Burki, F., Dunthorn, M., Hampl, V., Heiss, A., Hoppenrath, M., Lara, E., le Gall, L., Lynn, D. H., McManus, H., Mitchell, E. A. D., Mozley-Stanridge, S. E., Parfrey, L. W., Pawlowski, J., Rueckert, S., Shadwick, L., Schoch, C. L., Smirnov, A. and Spiegel, F. W. (2012), The Revised Classification of Eukaryotes. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology, 59: 429–514. doi: 10.1111/j.1550-7408.2012.00644.x
  • Bass, D.; Chao, E.E.-Y.; Nikolaev, S.; Yabuki, A.; Ishida, K.-i.; Berney, C.; Pakzad, U.; Wylezich, C.; Cavalier-Smith, T. 2008: Phylogeny of novel naked filose and reticulose Cercozoa: Granofilosea cl. n. and Proteomyxidea revised. Protist, 160: 75–109.
  • Cavalier-Smith, T. 1998: A revised six-kingdom system of Life. Biol. Rev. Camb. Philos. Soc. 73: 246.
  • Cavalier-Smith, T. 2002: The phagotrophic origin of eukaryotes and phylogenetic classification of Protozoa. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol, 52:297-354.
  • Cavalier-Smith, T. & Chao, E.E. 2003. Phylogeny and classification of phylum Cercozoa (Protozoa). Protist 154(3–4): 341–358. PMID: 14658494 DOI: 10.1078/143446103322454112 Reference page
  • Gordon, D.P. et al. 2012: 15. Phylum Cercozoa: cercomonads, filose testate amoebae, Phaeodaria, plasmodiophoras, Gromia, haplosporidians, and kin. Pp. 233-241 in: Gordon, D.P. (ed.) 2012. New Zealand inventory of biodiversity. Volume 3. Kingdoms Bacteria, Protozoa, Chromista, Plantae, Fungi. Canterbury University Press, Christchurch, New Zealand. Reference pageReference page


Alternative classificationsEdit

Cavalier-Smith (1998)Edit

From A revised six-kingdom system of life, [1].

Kingdom Protozoa

Cavalier-Smith (2002)Edit

From The phagotrophic origin of eukaryotes and phylogenetic classification of Protozoa, [2].

Kingdom Protozoa

Hausmann et al. (2003)Edit

From Hausmann, K., N. Hulsmann, R. Radek. Protistology. Schweizerbart'sche Verlagsbuchshandlung, Stuttgart, 2003.

Empire Eukaryota Chatton, 1925 (= Eukarya)

Cavalier-Smith & Chao (2003)Edit

Cercozoa Cavalier-Smith 1998


"As pointed out by Cavalier-Smith and Chao (2003b), Desmothoracida are also likely to be Cercozoa; if so, they would belong in this class Proteomyxidea close to heliomonads.

It is unclear whether the order Commatiida Cavalier-Smith 1996/7 (Commation) belongs in Cercozoa or Heterokonta.

Vampyrellida Starobogatov ex Krylov et al. 1980 were formerly included in Monadofilosa (Cavalier Smith 1996/7), but are now left as Protozoa incertae sedis pending molecular evidence."]

Adl et al. (2005)Edit

Eukaryota Chatton, 1925

Howe et al. (2009)Edit

Howe, A. T., Bass, D., Vickerman, K., Chao, E. E., & Cavalier-Smith, T. (2009). Phylogeny, taxonomy, and astounding genetic diversity of Glissomonadida ord. nov., the dominant gliding zooflagellates in soil (Protozoa: Cercozoa). Protist, 160(2), 159-189, [3].


Adl et al. (2012)Edit

Adl, S.M. et al. (2012). The revised classification of eukaryotes. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 59 (5): 429–514, [4].

Eukaryota Chatton, 1925

[Notes: M, monotypic group with only one described species; P, paraphyletic group; R, ribogroup assembled from phylogenetic studies.]

Cavalier-Smith & Chao (2012)Edit

Cavalier-Smith, Thomas; Chao, Ema E. (2012). Oxnerella micra sp. n. (Oxnerellidae fam. n.), a Tiny Naked Centrohelid, and the Diversity and Evolution of Heliozoa. Protist 163 (4): 574–601. doi:10.1016/j.protis.2011.12.005.

In Cercozoa

Ruggiero et al. (2015)Edit