Mammalia (classifications)

TaxonavigationEdit

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Superphylum: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Cladus: Craniata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Superclassis: Tetrapoda
Cladus: Reptiliomorpha
Cladus: Amniota
Cladus: Synapsida
Cladus: Eupelycosauria
Cladus: Sphenacodontia
Cladus: Sphenacodontoidea
Ordo: Therapsida
Cladus: Theriodontia
Subordo: Cynodontia
Cladus: Mammaliaformes
Classis: Mammalia

NameEdit

Mammalia Linnaeus, 1758

ClassificationsEdit

Linnaeus (1735)Edit

Systema Naturae, 1st edition, 1735, [1], [2].

Regnum Animale

  • Quadrupedia [= mammals, without whales]
    • Anthropomorpha
    • Ferae
    • Glires
    • Jumenta
    • Pecora
  • Aves
  • Amphibia
  • Pisces
  • Insecta
  • Vermes
  • Paradoxa

Klein (1751)Edit

Klein, J. T. Quadrupedum dispositio brevisque historia naturalis. 8vo. Lipsiae, [3].

Quadrupedia [= tetrapods, without the cecilians, snakes, birds and whales] [p. 124-127]

  • Ordo I. Quadrupedia ungulata [p. 3]
  • Ordo II. Quadrupedia digitata pilosa [p. 40]
  • Ordo III. Quadrupedia digitata depilata [p. 96]

Linnaeus (1758)Edit

Systema Naturae, 10th ed., vol. 1, [4], [5]. See Brands, S.J. (1989-2015), [6].

Regnum Animale

  • Classis I. Mammalia
    • Quadrupedia
      • Ordo I. Primates
      • Ordo II. Bruta
      • Ordo III. Ferae
      • Ordo IV. Bestiae
      • Ordo V. Glires
      • Ordo VI. Pecora
      • Ordo VII. Belluae
    • Pinnata
      • Ordo VIII. Cete
  • Classis II. Aves
  • Classis III. Amphibia
  • Classis IV. Pisces
  • Classis V. Insecta
  • Classis VI. Vermes

Storr (1780)Edit

Prodromus Methodi Mammalium, 1780, [7].

Tabula generalior [p. 45]

  • Imperii Natvrae
    • Regni Organici
      • Reipublicae Animalium
        • Agminis Rvbrisangvium
          • Aciei Calidorvm
            • Classis I. Mammalivm
              • Phalanx I. Pedatorum
                • Cohors I. Vnguiculatorum
                  • Ordo I. Primates
                  • Ordo II. Rosores
                  • Ordo III. Mutici
                • Cohors II. Vngulatorum
                  • Ordo I. Jumenta
                  • Ordo II. Pecora
                  • Ordo III. Belluae
              • Phalanx II. Pinnipedum
              • Phalanx III. Pinnatorum

Pennant (1781)Edit

History of Quadrupeds, Vol. 1. 4to. London, [8].

Quadrupeds [= mammals]

  • Div. I. Hoofed Quadrupeds
  • Div. II. Digitated Quadrupeds
  • Div. III. Pinnated Quadrupeds
  • Div. IV. Winged Quadrupeds

Boddaërt (1784)Edit

Elenchus animalium, [9].

  • Quadrupedia [= mammals]
    • Terrestria [p. 42]
    • Aquilata [p. 165]

Vicq d’Azyr (1792)Edit

Système anatomique des quadrupèdes, in: Encyclopédie méthodique: Système anatomique, vol. 2, [10].

Quadrupèdes [= mammals, p. xcv-cx]

  • 1. Pédimanes
  • 2. Rongeurs
  • 3. Aile-pieds (Chauve souris)
  • 4. Taupens ou Taupes
  • 5. Soriciens
  • 6. Édentés
  • 7. Carnivores
  • 8. Empêtrés
  • 9. Cheveaux d'eau
  • 10. Élephantins
  • 11. Tapiriens
  • 12. Rhinocéros
  • 13. Porcini
  • 14. Ruminans
  • 15. Solipèdes

Geoffroy Saint-Hillaire & Cuvier (1795)Edit

Geoffroy Saint-Hillaire, É. & Cuvier, G. (1795). Mémoire sur une nouvelle division des mammiferes, et sur les principes qui doivent servir de base dans cette sorte de travail. Magasin encyclopédique 2: 164–190. See Gregory (1910). [11].

Mammifères

  • Mammifères à ongles [p. 186]
    • Ordre Ier. Quadrumanes [Boddaërt].
    • Ordre IIe. Chéiroptères [Blumenbach].
    • Ordre IIe. Plantigrades [new term? Insectivores, plantigrade carnivora.]
    • Ordre IVe. Vermiformes [cf. “Verminei”, of Ray and Storr] (Mephitis, Mustela, Lutra).
    • Ordre Ve. Carnivores [Vicq d'Azyr] (Civetta, Hyaena, Canis, Felis).
    • Ordre VI°. Pédimanes [Vicq d'Azyr] (Didelphis, Phalangista).
    • Ordre VIP. Rongeurs [Vicq d'Azyr] (Kangurus, Dipus, Glis, Sciurus, Mus, etc.).
    • Ordre VIIIe. Édentés [Vicq d'Azyr] (Myrmecophaga, Manis, Dasypus).
    • Ordre IXe. Tardigrades [cf. Brisson's “Tardigradus”] (Bradypus).
  • Mammifères à sabots
    • Ordre Xe. Pachydermes [new term?] (Elephantus, Rhinoceros, Hippopotamus, Tapir, Sus).
    • Ordre XIe. Ruminans [Vicq d'Azyr] (Camelus, Moschus, Cervus, Camelopardalis, Antilope, Capra, Ovis, Bos).
    • Ordre XIIe. Solipèdes [Vicq d'Azyr] (Equus).
  • Mammifères marins
    • Ordre XIIIe. Amphibies [cf. “Empêtrés” Vicq d'Azyr] (Phoca, Rosmarus, Manatus, Trichecus [Dugong]).
    • Ordre XIVe. Cétacés.

Lacépède (1799)Edit

Tableau des divisions, sous-divisions, ordres et genres des, mammifères, pp. 1-18. Paris, année VII [1799]. See Gregory (1910).

Mammifères

  • Division I. Quadrupèdes proprement dis.
  • Division II. Mammifères ailés.
  • Division III. Mammifères marines.

Illiger (1811)Edit

Prodromus mammalium et avium, [12].

Mammalia [p. 58]

  • Erecta
  • Pollicata
  • Salientia
  • Prensiculantia
  • Multungula
  • Solidungula
  • Bisulca
  • Tardigrada
  • Effodientia
  • Reptantia
  • Volitantia
  • Faculata
  • Pinnipedia
  • Natantia

de Blainville (1834)Edit

de Blainville (1834), cited by Gervais in the Dictionnaire pittoresque d'histoire naturelle, Tome IV, 1836, p. 619, [13].

Mammifères

  • Monadelphes
  • Didelphes
  • Ornithodelphes

de Blainville (1839-1864)Edit

de Blainville, M. Ostéographie, ou, Description iconographique comparée du squelette et du système dentaire des Mammifères récents et fossiles. 4 vols. of text in 4to, 4 vol. of plates in folio. Paris, [14], [15], [16].

Mammifères

  • Primatès
  • Secundatès
  • Quaternatès
  • Maldentés

Kaup (1844)Edit

Classification der säugethiere und vögel, [17].

Mammalia

  • Pollicata
  • Glires
  • Mammalia herpethoidea
  • Mammalia Ichthyoidea
  • Ruminantia

Wagner (1855)Edit

Schreber's Säugetiere, Suppl. Bd., part 5, Vte Abth., pp. ix-xxvi, [18], plates, [19].

Säugetiere

  • Simiae
  • Edentata
  • Marsupialia
  • Ruminantia
  • Solidungula
  • Pachydermata
  • Insectivora
  • Chiroptera

Gill (1870, 1872)Edit

On the relations of the orders of mammals. Proc. Amer. Assoc. Adv. Sci., 1870, 19th meeting, pp. 267-270, [20].

Arrangement of the families of mammals, Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, 1872, [21].

Class Mammalia

  • Subclass Monodelphia
  • Subclass Didelphia
  • Subclass Ornithodelphia

Huxley (1880)Edit

Huxley T.H. 1880. On the application of the laws of evolution to the arrangement of the Vertebrata and more particularly of the Mammalia. Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., p. 649-662, [22].

Mammalia

  • Hypotheria
  • Prototheria
  • Metatheria
  • Eutheria

Flower (1883)Edit

On the arrangement of the orders and families of existing Mammalia. Proc. Zoo. Soc., Apr. 17, 1883, pp. 178-186, [23].

Mammalia

  • Subclass Prototheria or Ornithodelphia
  • Subclass Metatheria or Didelphia
  • Subclass Eutheria or Monodelphia

Weber (1904)Edit

Die Säugetiere, pp. ix-xi, [24].

Säugetiere

  • I. Unterklasse Monotremata
  • II. Unterklasse Marsupialia
  • III. Unterklasse Monodelphia

Osborn (1910)Edit

Osborn H.F. 1910. The age of mammals in Europe, Asia and North America. N.Y.: MacMillan, 635 p.,[25].

  • Mammalia [p. 25]
    • Prototheia
      • Protodonta
      • Monotremata
    • Marsupialia, Didelphia or Metatheria
      • Triconodonta
      • Marsupialia proper
    • Placentalia, Monodelphia or Eutheria
      • Unguiculata
      • Primates
      • Ungulata
      • Cetacea

Gregory (1910)Edit

Gregory, W.K. 1910. The orders of mammals. Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. V. 27. P. 1-524, [26].

  • Class Reptilia [p. 464]
    • Order Therapsida Broom
  • Class Mammalia Linn.
    • ?Subclass Promammalia Haeckel
    • Subclass Prototheria Gill, Huxley
    • Subclass Theria Parker & Haswell (= Eutheria Gill)

Simpson (1945)Edit

Simpson, G. G. 1945. The principles of classification and a classification of mammals. Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 85: 1–350, [27].

  • Class Mammalia
    • Subclass Prototheria
      • Order Monotremata
    • Subclass †Allotheria
      • Order †Multituberculata
    • Mammalia of uncertain subclass
      • Order †Triconodonta
    • Subclass Theria
      • Infraclass †Pantotheria
        • Order †Pantotheria
        • Order †Symmetrodonta
      • Infraclass Metatheria
        • Order Marsupialia
      • Infraclass Eutheria
        • Cohort Unguiculata
          • Order Insectivora (incl. Macroscelididae)
          • Order Dermoptera
          • Order Chiroptera
          • Order Primates (incl. Tupaiidae)
          • Order Edentata
          • Order Pholidota
        • Cohort Glires
          • Order Lagomorpha
          • Order Rodentia
        • Cohort Mutica
          • Order Cetacea
        • Cohort Ferungulata
          • Superorder Ferae
            • Order Carnivora (incl. Pinnipedia)
          • Superorder Protungulata
            • Order Tubulidentata
          • Superorder Paenungulata
            • Order Proboscidea
            • Order Hyracoidea
            • Order Sirenia
          • Superorder Mesaxonia
            • Order Perissodactyla
          • Superorder Paraxonia
            • Order Artiodactyla

Novacek et al. in Benton (1988)Edit

Novacek M.J., Wyss A., McKenna M.C. 1988. The major groups of eutherian mammals. In: Benton M.J. (ed). The phylogeny and classification of tetrapods. V. 2. Mammals. Oxford: Clarendon Press, p. 31-71. From Pavlinov (2006).

Mammalia

  • Prototheria
  • Theria
    • Marsupialia
    • Placentalia
      • Cohort Edentata
        • Order Xenarthra
        • Order Pholidota
      • Cohort Epitheria
        • Order Tubulidentata
        • Superorder Ferae
          • Order Carnivora
        • Superorder Lipotyphla
          • Order Insectivora
        • Superorder Archonta
          • Order Scandentia
          • Order Primates
          • Grandorder Volitantia
            • Order Dermoptera
            • Order Chiroptera
        • Superorder Anagalida
          • Order Macroscelidea
          • Grandorder Glires
            • Order Lagomorpha
            • Order Rodentia
        • Superorder Ungulata
          • Order Artiodactyla
          • Order Perissodactyla
          • Order Cetacea
          • Grandorder Paenungulata
            • Order Hyracoidea
            • Mirorder Tethytheria
              • Order Proboscidea
              • Order Sirenia

McKenna and Bell (1997)Edit

McKenna, M. C., and Bell, S. K. 1997. Classification of Mammals Above the Species Level. Columbia University Press, New York, 631 pp., [28].

Class Mammalia

Shoshani and MacKenna (1998)Edit

Shoshani J., McKenna M.C. 1998. Higher taxonomic relationships among extant mammals based on morphology, with selected comparisons of results from molecular data. Mol. Phylog. Evol. V. 9 (3). P. 572-584. From Pavlinov (2006).

Mammalia

  • Prototheria
  • Theria
    • Marsupialia
    • Placentalia
      • Edentata
        • Xenarthra
      • Epitheria
        • Lipotyphla
          • Insectivora
        • Preptotheria
          • Unguiculata
            • Anagalida
              • Macroscelidea
              • Glires
                • Lagomorpha
                • Rodentia
            • Archonta
              • Scandentia
              • Primatomorpha
                • Primates
                • Volitantia
                  • Dermoptera
                  • Chiroptera
          • Ferungulata
            • Ferae
              • Carnivora
              • Pholidota
            • Ungulata
              • Tubulidentata
              • Cetungulata
                • Eparctocyona
                  • Artiodactyla
                  • Cetacea
                • Altungulata
                  • Perissodactyla
                  • Uranotheria
                    • Hyracoidea
                    • Tethytheria
                      • Proboscidea
                      • Sirenia

Agadjanian et al. (2000)Edit

Agadjanian, A. K., Kalandadze, N. N., Rautian, A. S. (2000). The radiation of mammalian orders: a new insight. Paleontologicheskii Zhurnal. (6): 69–73.

[Aгаджанян А.К., Каландадзе Н.Н., Раутиан А.С., 2000. Радиация отрядов млекопитающих: новый взгляд. Палеонтол. журн. № 6. С. 69-73.] From Pavlinov (2006).

  • Placentalia
    • Legion Ferae
      • Cohort Carnivora
        • Order Caniformia
        • Order Feliformia
      • Cohort Insectivora
        • Order Lipotyphla
    • Legion Asiatheria
      • Cohort Volitantia
        • Order Menotyphla
        • Order Chiroptera
        • Order Dermoptera
      • Cohort Lagotheria
        • Order Lagomorpha
    • Legion Westheria
      • Cohort Primatomorpha
        • Order Primates
        • Order Rodentia
      • Cohort Edentata
        • Order Nomarthra
        • Order Xenarthra
      • Cohort Ungulata
        • Subcohort Proterungulata
          • Order Macroscelidea
        • Subcohort Mesaxonia
          • Order Perissodactyla
        • Subcohort Paenungulata
          • Superorder Procaviamorpha
            • Order Hyracoidea
          • Superorder Tethytheria
            • Order Proboscidea
            • Order Sirenia
        • Subcohort Ferungulata
          • Superorder Paraxonia
            • Order Artiodacyla
          • Superorder Mutica
            • Order Cetacea

Pavlinov (2006)Edit

Pavlinov, I. Y. Systematics of Recent Mammals (2d ed.) — Moscow: Moscow Univ. Publ. 2006. 297 p.

[Павлинов И. Я. Систематика современных млекопитающих (2 изд.) — М.: изд-во МГУ. 2006. 297 с.]

  • Class Mammalia [p. 24, 239]
    • Subclass Protothertia
      • Order Platypoda
      • Order Tachyglossa
    • Subclass Theria
      • Infraclass Metatheria (= Marsupiala)
        • Cohort Ameridelphia
          • Order Didelphimorphia
          • Order Paucituberculata
        • Cohort Australidelphia
          • Order Microbiotheria
          • Order Dasyuromorphia
          • Order Notoryctemorphia
          • Superorder Syndactyli
            • Order Peramelemorphia
            • Order Diprotodontia
      • Infraclass Eutheria (= Placentalia)
        • Legion Edentata
          • Order Cingulata
          • Order Pilosa
        • Legion Epitheria
          • Cohort Lipotyphla
            • Order Afrosoricida
            • Order Eulipotyphla
          • Cohort Archonta
            • Order Scandentia
            • Order Primates
            • Order Dermoptera
            • Order Chiroptera
          • Cohort Anagalida
            • Order Macroscelidea
            • Superorder Glires
              • Order Lagomorpha
              • Order Rodentia
          • Cohort Ferae
            • Order Pholidota
            • Order Carnivora
          • Cohort Ungulata
            • Order †Bibymalagasia
            • Order Tubulidentata
            • Subcohort Cetungulata
              • Order Perissodactyla
              • Hyperorder Eparctocyona (= Cetartiodactyla)
                • Order Cetacea
                • Order Artiodactyla
              • Hyperorder Paenungulata
                • Order Hyracoidea
                • Superorder Tethytheria
                  • Order Proboscidea
                  • Order Sirenia

ReferencesEdit

  • Gregory, W. K. (1910). The orders of mammals. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, v. 27, [29].