Halichondria panicea

(Redirected from Spongia panicea)
Halichondria panicea


Taxonavigation: Suberitida 

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Cladus: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Cladus: Holozoa
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Parazoa
Phylum: Porifera
Classis: Demospongiae
Subclassis: Heteroscleromorpha
Ordo: Suberitida

Familia: Halichondriidae
Genus: Halichondria
Subgenus: Halichondria (Halichondria)
Species: Halichondria panicea



Halichondria panicea (Pallas, 1766)

  • Type data: unknown, probably lost. [All type material of Pallas was destroyed by fire in Küstrin (Poland) in 1758 during the Seven Years’ War fide Wiedenmayer (1977)]
  • Neotype: BMNH 1964.6.8.6, collected on 28 September 1963. [designated by Erpenbeck & van Soest (2002: 801)]
  • Type locality: “Mare circa Angliam & Belgium”, redesigned by neotype designation to “Burnham-on-Crouch, Essex” by Erpenbeck & van Soest (2002: 801).


  • Spongia panicea Pallas, 1766: 388 [original combination]
  • Halichondria paniceaFleming, 1828: 520 [subsequent combination]


  • Spongia tomentosa Linnaeus, 1767: 1299 [original combination]
    • Type data: unknown.
    • Type locality: “Zosteram”.
  • Spongia cristata Ellis & Solander, 1786: 186
    • Type data: unknown. [Unlocated collection fide Stone (1986)]
    • Type locality: “eastward of Hastings, in Sussex”.
  • Spongia urens Ellis & Solander, 1786: 187
    • Type data: unknown. [Unlocated collection fide Stone (1986)]
    • Type locality: “sea coast of North America”.



Primary references

  • Pallas, P.S. 1766. Elenchus zoophytorum sistens generum adumbrationes generaliores et specierum cognitarum succintas descriptiones, cum selectis auctorum synonymis. Fransiscum Varrentrapp, Hagae. pp. 451. BHL Reference page
  • Linnaeus, C. 1767. Systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Editio duodecima, reformata. Tomus 1 (Regnum Animale), Pars 2: 533–1327. Holmiæ [Stockholm]. Impensis Direct Laurentii Salvii. Biblioteca Digital BHL Reference page
  • Ellis, J. & Solander, D. 1786. The natural history of many curious and uncommon zoophytes, collected from various parts of the globe by the late John Ellis... Systematically arranged and described by the late Daniel Solander. B. White & Son: London. xii + 208 pp., 63 plates. BHL Reference page
  • Erpenbeck, D. & van Soest, R.W.M. 2002. Family Halichondriidae Gray, 1867. Pp. 787–815 in Hooper, J.N.A. & van Soest, R.W.M. (eds.). Systema Porifera. Guide to the classification of sponges. 2 volumes. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers: New York, Boston, Dordrecht, London, Moscow. ISBN 978-0-306-47260-2 Reference page