Trachythyone elongata


Superregnum: Eukaryota
Cladus: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Cladus: Holozoa
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Superphylum: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Echinodermata
Subphylum: Eleutherozoa
Superclassis: Cryptosyringida
Classis: Holothuroidea
Subclassis: Apodacea - Aspidochirotacea - Dendrochirotacea

Overview of ordines (6)Edit

Apodida - Aspidochirotida - Dactylochirotida - Dendrochirotida - Elasipodida - Molpadiida


Holothuroidea Blainville 1834


Alternatively classified in Echinozoa, depending on which hypothesis is adopted.


  • Kerr, A. 2000: Evolution and Systematics of Holothuroidea (Echinodermata). Thesis, Yale University.
  • O’Loughlin, P.M. 2009: BANZARE holothuroids (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea). Zootaxa 2196: 1–18. Abstract & excerpt PDF Reference page
  • Pawson, D.L.; Pawson, D.J.; King, R.A. 2010: A taxonomic guide to the Echinodermata of the South Atlantic Bight, USA: 1. Sea cucumbers (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea). Zootaxa, 2449: Preview PDF
  • Smiley, S. 1994: Holothuroidea. In: Harrison, F. W. and F.-S. Chia, eds. Microscopic Anatomy of Invertebrates. Volume 14. Echinodermata. New York: Wiley-Liss, 401-471.
  • Smith, A.B. 1997: Echinoderm larvae and phylogeny. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 28: 219–241.
  • Thandar, A.S. & Rambaran, R. 2015. On some sea cucumbers (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea) from off the south and west coasts of South Africa collected by the South African Environmental and Observation Network (SAEON). Zootaxa 3999(1): 41–61. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.3999.1.3. Preview (PDF). Reference page
  • Théel, J.H. 1879. Preliminary Report on the Holothuridae of the Exploring Voyage of H.M.S. "Challenger" under Professor Sir C. Wyville Thomson F.R.S., Part 1. Bihang Till Kongliga Svenska vetenskaps-akademiens Handlingar 5(19): 1-20. BHL Reference page
  • Théel, H. 1882. Report on the Holothuroidea dredged by H.M.S. Challenger during the years 1873-1876. Part I. Reports of Science Research Voyage of H.M.S. Challenger. Zoology 4(13): 1-176. BHL Reference page
  • Théel, J.H. 1886. Report on the Holothurioidea dredged by H.M.S. Challenger during the years 1873-76. Part II. Report on the Scientific Results of the Voyage of H.M.S. Challenger During the Years 1873–76, Zoology 14(39): 1-290. BHL Reference page

Additional referencesEdit


Vernacular namesEdit

беларуская: Галатурыі
čeština: Sumýši
Deutsch: Seegurken
Ελληνικά: Ολοθούρια, Αγγούρια της θάλασσας
English: Sea cucumbers
español: Pepinos de mar
suomi: Merimakkarat
français: Holothuries, concombres de mer
Bahasa Indonesia: Teripang
italiano: Cetrioli di mare, Oloturie
македонски: Морски краставици
polski: strzykwy
slovenčina: Holotúrie
தமிழ்: கடல் வெள்ளரி
Tiếng Việt: Hải sâm
中文: 海参纲
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