Melanohalea exasperatula


Taxonavigation: Lecanorales 

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Fungi
Subregnum: Dikarya
Divisio: Ascomycota
Subdivisio: Pezizomycotina
Classis: Lecanoromycetes
Subclassis: Lecanoromycetidae
Ordo: Lecanorales

Familia: Parmeliaceae
Subfamilia: Parmelioideae
Genus: Melanohalea
Species: Melanohalea exasperatula


Melanohalea exasperatula (Nyl.) O.Blanco, A. Crespo, Divakar, Essl., D. Hawksw. & Lumbsch, 2004

Basionym: Parmelia exasperatula Nyl., 1873


  • Melanelia exasperatula (Nyl.) Essl., Mycotaxon 7(1): 47 (1978)
  • Parmelia exasperatula Nyl., Flora, Jena 56: 299 (1873)


  • Mycol. Res. 108(8): 882 (2004)
  • Blanco, O.; Crespo, A.; Divakar, P.K.; Esslinger, T.L.; Hawksworth, D.L. and Lumbsch, H.T. (2004) Melanelixia and Melanohalea, two new genera segregated from Melanelia (Parmeliaceae) based on molecular and morphological data. - Mycological Research 108(8): 873–884.   (RLL List # 197 / Rec.# 26150 - Recent Literature on Lichens) (PDF file)
  • McCune, B. and Geiser, L. (2009) Melanohalea (pp. 200-204) Macrolichens of the Pacific Northwest. (Second Edition) Oregon State University Press, Corvallis, 464 pp. (Description of Melanohalea exasperatula, illustration of isidia and color photo: p. 201)
  • Brodo, I.M., Sharnoff, S.D. and Sharnoff, S. (2001) Melanelia (pp. 430-441) In, Lichens of North America. Yale University Press, New Haven, 795 pages. (Description of Melanohalea exasperatula and distribution map for North America: p. 434; color photo: p. 434, plate 496 [as Melanelia exasperatula])
  • Dobson, F.S. (2000) (Fourth edition) Parmelia (pp. 255-277) In, Lichens: An illustrated guide to the British and Irish species. The Richmond Publishing Co., Ltd., Slough, England, 431 pp. (Description of Melanohalea exasperatula, and map: p. 265 [as Parmelia exasperatula])
  • Esslinger, T.L. (2002) Melanelia (pp. 274-286) In: Nash III, T.H., Ryan, B.D, Gries, C. and Bungartz, F. (eds.), Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region, Vol. 1. Lichens Unlimited, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona, 532 pages. (Description of Melanohalea exasperatula: pp. 278-279 [as Melanelia exasperatula])
  • Hinds, J.W. and Hinds, P.L. (2007) Melanelia Essl., 1978 (pp. 305-321) In, The Macrolichens of New England. - Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden No. 96. New York Botanical Garden Press, Bronx, New York. 584 pp. (Description of Melanohalea exasperatula: pp. 309-310; color photo: p. 310, fig. 174 [as Melanelia exasperatula])
  • Purvis, O.W. and James, P.W. (1992) Parmelia Ach., 1803 (pp. 421-437) In: Purvis, O.W., Coppins, B.J., Hawksworth, D.L., James, P.W. and Moore, D.M. (eds.) The Lichen Flora of Great Britain and Ireland. London: Natural History Museum Publication, 710 pp. (Description of Melanohalea exasperatula: p. 435 [as Parmelia exasperatula])
  • St. Clair, L.L. (1999) Melanelia Essl. (pp. 116-120) In, A color guidebook to common Rocky Mountain lichens. M.L. Bean Life Science Museum of Brigham Young University Publisher, 242 pp. (Description of Melanohalea exasperatula and color photo: p. 117 [as Melanelia exasperatula])
  • Thomson, J.W. (1984) Parmelia Ach. (pp. 295-318). In, American Arctic Lichens: 1. The Macrolichens. Columbia University Press, New York, 504 pages. (Description of Melanohalea exasperatula and illustration: p. 301; distribution map for the North American Arctic: p.300 [as Parmelia exasperatula])
  • Thomson, J.W. (2003) Melanelia Essl. (pp. 140-144) In, Lichens of Wisconsin. Wisconsin State Herbarium, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 386 pages. (Description of Melanohalea exasperatula: p. 142 [as Melanelia exasperatula])
  • van Herk, K. and Aptroot, A. (2004) Melanelia Essl. (pp. 242-247) In, Veldgids Korstmossen. Koninkliijke Nederlandse Natuurhistorische Vereniging, 423 pages; in Dutch. (Description of Melanohalea exasperatula: p. 244; color photo: p. 245 [as Melanelia exasperatula])
  • Wirth, V. (1995) Melanelia Essl. (pp. 649-656) - Teil 2) In, Die Flechten Baden-Württembergs, Teil 1 & 2. Eugen Ulmer GmbH & Co., Stuttgart. 1006 pp.; in German. (Description of Melanohalea exasperatula: p. 651 [as Parmelia exasperatula])

Links to photosEdit

Vernacular namesEdit

English: Lustrous camouflage lichen,   Lustrous tree brown-shield
Nederlands: Lepelschildmos