Heterodermia granulifera


Taxonavigation: Caliciales 

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Fungi
Subregnum: Dikarya
Divisio: Ascomycota
Subdivisio: Pezizomycotina
Classis: Lecanoromycetes
Subclassis: Lecanoromycetidae
Ordo: Caliciales

Familia: Physciaceae
Genus: Heterodermia
Species: Heterodermia granulifera



Heterodermia granulifera (Ach.) W.L.Culb., 1967

  • Parmelia granulifera Ach., Syn. Lich.: 212 (1814)



Ecology and Distribution: H. granulifera is widespread in Appalachian Mountains and Piedmont of eastern North America, with disjunct populations in the Ozark Ecoregion.


  • Culberson, W.L. (1966) Chemistry and taxonomy of the lichen genera Heterodermia and Anaptychia in the Carolinas. - The Bryologist 69: 472–487.   (RLL List # 61 / Rec. # 3843 - Recent Literature on Lichens) (JSTOR) (Heterodermia granulifera: p. 482)
  • Flenniken, D. (1999) Heterodermia Trevisan (pp. 115-121) In The Macrolichens In West Virginia, 231 pages, 26 plates. (Published by D. Flenniken, 2273 Blachleyville Rd, Wooster, Ohio 44691) (Description of Heterodermia granulifera: p. 118; color photo: Plate 12, B)
  • Hale, M.E., Jr. (1979) How to Know the Lichens. 2nd. Edition. - Wm. C. Brown Co., Dubuque, Iowa. 246 pp.   (RLL List # 103-34 / Rec. # 7485 - Recent Literature on Lichens) (Illustrations of Heterodermia granulifera: pp. 109 & 110)
  • Lendemer, J.C. (2009) A synopsis of the lichen genus Heterodermia (Physciaceae, lichenized Ascomycota) in eastern North America. Opuscula Philolichenum 6: 1–36. (PDF file) (Heterodermia granulifera discussed on pp. 14 & 19; Plate 15, p. 33, geographic distribution map) (Plate 8, p. 17, color photos of Heterodermia granulifera: Fig. 1, upper surface; Fig. 2, lower surface and rhizines; Fig. 3, thallus; Fig. 4, pruinose lobe tip; Fig. 5, isidia)
  • Moberg, R. and Nash III, T.H. (2002) Heterodermia (pp. 207-219) In: Nash III, T.H.; Ryan, B.D.; Gries, C. and Bungartz, F. (eds.), Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region, Vol. 1. Lichens Unlimited, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona, 532 pages. (Description of Heterodermia granulifera: pp. 211-212; distribution map for the Sonoran region: p. 212)

Vernacular names

English: Shield lichen